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Women's Health and Sex Differences Research: Search tips on these topics

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Medical Subject Heading (MeSH or [mh])  terms related to biological sex or social gender distinctions:

Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role. Year introduced: 1991(1975)


Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE. Year introduced: 2004 (1963)


Sex : The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.


Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.


Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain. Year introduced: 1975


Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine. Year introduced: 1994


Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances. Year introduced: 1968


Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females. Year introduced: 1968


Sexism: Prejudice or discrimination based on gender or behavior or attitudes that foster stereotyped social roles based on gender. Year introduced: 2013


Sexual Development: The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING. Year introduced: 2005


Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES. Year introduced: 2013


Terms you might want to exclude (using NOT) for a general search:

Sex Education [mh]

Homosexuality [mh] (defined as males who have sex with males AND/OR females with females. Homosexuality, Female and Homosexuality, Male are narrower MeSH terms_

Sex Work [mh]

(Commercial) sex worker(s)

Sex steroid(s)



Possible strategy for general social gender or biological sex articles:

gender[ti] OR (sex[ti] NOT (homosexuality OR "sex work"[ti] OR "sex workers"[ti]))


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