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St. Augustine, Florida, 1963-1964: mass protest and racial violence by
Call Number: F.2 S11 S1332
Publication Date: 1989
This edited volume focuses on the chronology of events as they unfolded in St. Augustine during 1964, and especially on actiosn by segregationists and white supremicist groups in St. Augustine as they tried to shut down the civil rights demonstrations. It includes 1965 Report of the Florida Legislative Investigative Committee and other primary source materials.
Racial Change and Community Crisis: St. Augustine Florida, 1877-1980 by
Call Number: F319.S2 C65 1991
Publication Date: 1991-06-20
"Colburn presents the facts and is not afraid to interpret them. His narrative captures the inherent drama of specific events and situations: the ruthless beatings of demonstrators, the complacency and fear of many white moderates, the genuinely incredible power of nonviolence to accomplish grand political ends, and the great courage this weapon required of those who wielded it."
--Reviews in American History
In 1964, racial reform and racial extremism clashed in St. Augustine, Florida, the city the Southern Christian Leadership Conference targeted for the activities of its nonviolent army. Under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr., the SCLC staged demonstrations in St. Augustine that they hoped would pressure the U.S. Congress into passing civil rights legislation. Extremists, led by Ku Klux Klan and John Birch Society members, saw in St. Augustine a last opportunity to halt the forces of racial change. What resulted-beatings, shootings, bombings, and mass arrests-was some of the ugliest racial violence the nation has witnessed.
Oral History Interview
A transcript of a recorded interview with Robert Bagner Hayling by
Call Number: E184.6.H39 1967
Publication Date: 1967
Interview conducted ... in Atlanta, Georgia, on August 16, 1967. Dr. Robert Hayling, a leader in the 1964 campaign for civil rights in St. Augustine, has been called the father of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. A prominent citizen of St. Augustine, where he had his dental practice, he was an adviser to the NAACP Youth Council and served as head o the local chapter of the Southern Christian Leadership Council. He was targeted by white supremacist groups for his organization of protests against segregation and his prominence in the local civil rights movement. For additional background see the ACCORD site
FBI Surveillance of Protests
Centers of the Southern Struggle: FBI files on Selma, Memphis, Montgomery, Albany, and St. Augustine by
Call Number: E185.61.C468 1988 Floor map
Publication Date: 1988
21 microfilm reels ; 35 mm. + 1 guide (xvi, 51 p. ; 28 cm.) FBI files on Selma, Memphis, Montgomery, Albany, and St. Augustine. Accompanied by a printed reel guide, compiled by Michael Moscato and Martin P. Schipper
District Attorney's Perspective
If It Takes All Summer by
Call Number: F319.S2W365 2008
Publication Date: 2008-03-01
This memoir recounts the struggle against segregation in St. Augustine, Florida, in the early and mid-1960s. In the summer of 1964 the nation’s oldest city became the center of the civil rights movement as Martin Luther King Jr., encouraged by President Johnson, a southerner, who made the civil rights bill the center piece of his domestic policy, chose this tourism-driven community as an ideal location to demonstrate the injustice of discrimination and the complicity of southern leaders in its enforcement.
St. Augustine was planning an elaborate celebration of its founding, and expected generous federal and state support. But when the kick-off dinner was announced only whites were invited, and local black leaders protested. The affair alerted the national civil rights leadership to the St. Augustine situation as well as fueling local black resentment.
Ferment in the city grew, convincing King to bring his influence to the leadership of the local struggle. As King and his allies fought for the right to demonstrate, a locally powerful Ku Klux Klan counter-demonstrated. Conflict ensued between civil rights activists, local and from out-of-town, and segregationists, also home-grown and imported. The escalating violence of the Klan led Florida’s Governor to appoint State Attorney Dan Warren as his personal representative in St. Augustine. Warren’s crack down on the Klan and his innovative use of the Grand Jury to appoint a bi-racial committee against the intransigence of the Mayor and other officials, is a fascinating story of moral courage. This is an insider view of a sympathetic middleman in the difficult position of attempting to bring reason and dialog into a volatile situation.
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