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RDS@UF: Periodicals/Serials Item Creation

Resource Description Services department procedures and policies

Last updated January 2020 by Hank Young and Greg Allen.


Periodicals/Serials Item Creation

Using This Manual
Foreign Languages and Scripts
Foreign Language Months
Foreign Language Punctuation
Navigating in ALEPH
--Hotkeys in ALEPH
--Opening a BIB Record Using the Search Tab

--Using ‘Find’ to Search for Records
--Reviewing the BIB Record

--Duplicate OCLCs/ISSNs
--Determining Correct Enumeration/Chronology
--Slashes vs. Dashes
--Alternative Enumeration
--Chronology as Enumeration
--Non-Chronological Numbering or Dates
--Secondary Enumeration/Chronology
--Enumeration/Chronology Changes
--Seasonal Chronology
--Non-Captioned Enumeration
--Implied Caption and/or Enumeration

Item records
--Creating Item Records
--Formatting the Item Description
--Formatting Item Descriptions, Pairs, and Holdings with Day Chronology
--Missing items at issue level
--Moving Items without Moving the Holding

Holding Records
--Creating a New Holding Record
--LDR and 008 Fixed Fields
--Adding a 852 Field
--85X/86X pairs
--Adding 853/863 Pairs
--Missing Items at the Volume Level
--Missing Items at Issue Level
--Gap and Non-Gap Breaks
--Adding 854/864 Pairs for Supplements
--Adding 85x/86x Pairs Manually
--Editing an Existing Holding Record (HOL)
--Suppressing Holdings
--Deleting Holdings
Moving Holdings and Items to a New Title
Microfilm Processing
--Vinegar Syndrome in Microfilm Material
--Processing Microfilm
UF Stamps
Split Items
Damaged items
Maps and Other Named Supplementary Material
Adding 855/865 Pairs for Indexes
Indexes with enumeration


Using This Manual

The purpose of this manual is to detail UF item check-in policies and procedures. It is a work in progress.

It is based on the FLARE Processing manual, which was developed by Tabatha Pursley, Sarah Prentice, and Madison Curry, in conjunction with Naomi Young, Hank Young, Jody Hewitt, and Beth Rubiano.  This abridged version should cover situations needed by the UF branches that check in periodicals.

Please direct all addition and edit requests to Hank Young at

A glossary for terms seen in this manual is available at the end of the document, or by clicking here. Glossary terms are bolded throughout the text.

Please note that these rules are only for HOLDINGS and ITEMS.  The rules for BIBIOGRAPHIC RECORDS (BIBs) are different.

Also note that some of the examples here will show FLARE Holdings instead of UF Holdings.  The process is the same for both, but sometimes I could not find a UF example and did not want to create an error just to get a new screen shot.

Foreign Languages and Scripts

Often, the items will be in a foreign language or script. Complete the holding record, to the best of your ability, in the language that appears on the items and in the language code in the 008 field.

Since the record is in Russian, the primary enumeration and months (if needed) should reflect what is on the title page.

If you have Roman numerals, convert to Arabic numerals. If needed, consult a conversion site like

MCMXXIV à 1924

Volume XXVII à v.27

Foreign Language Months

In the 20th century, it was the practice at UF to use the English-language name of months.  However; in very early 2000 we aligned our policy with the PCC to use the language of the journal.  For those of us who do not know the months in every language and how to properly abbreviate them, you can consult the Captions for Foreign Months list on the Aleph@UF page.

If foreign language holdings have not been displaying correctly in the catalog, please contact the Serials Cataloging Unit so we can notify FLASC.

Foreign Language Punctuation

Foreign languages sometimes use different punctuation and this punctuation should be used when appropriate. While English uses first a comma and then a period to express thousands and decimals, other languages may use a period for the thousand and a comma for the decimal spot.

For example, while we would have 4,300,200,100.00 - it would read 4.300.200.100,000 in Italian, Norwegian, and Spanish. In German it would read 4 300 200.100,000 and in French it would read 4 300 200 100,000.

If you come across any foreign language numbering, enter it in as it appears on the title page and as is correct for that language.

Navigating in ALEPH

ALEPH Cataloging is a cataloging system that creates the OPAC Catalog. The OPAC catalog allows patrons to see what items are held in a particular collection.

When you first open ALEPH, you will need to login. Your login information will be provided by your supervisor upon hire. After you have successfully logged in, ALEPH will appear as a blank page.



The four tabs to the left are your main tools for navigating within ALEPH. The one farthest to the left will show your open records. When no records are open, it will appear blank, as it does above. The next tab will open up the list of items for the record you are in. The third is the Task Manager, which is not used in FLARE processing. The fourth tab is the Search tab. This is where you can search for different records if other methods fail to bring up a record.

Above the tabs, you have a few quick search bars. You can enter the bibliographic number into the first one to bring up a record. The drop-down menu tab just below it sets up the type of search you can perform in the search entry box to the right. You have the option to search with a barcode, BIB number, ADM. Number, or call number.

At the bottom right-hand side of ALEPH there is another small toolbar.

  • The first four are the four different parts of ALEPH. We use the second icon, the Cataloging program. You will not need to worry about the other three for periodical check-in.
  • The key icon is the tool you will use if you need to switch your login information with ALEPH already open.  Some people will have more than one login, but this is an exception.
  • Next is your language option, where English is selected.
  • The house to the left shows you where you are in the record. Currently it shows that we are in the BIB record.
  • The printer button does not function in this application. If you need to print an ALEPH record, you will need to take a screenshot.  I recommend the “Snipping tool”.
  • The X will close all ALEPH applications.

Hotkeys in ALEPH


Helpful hotkeys in ALEPH









New field


New subfield


Copy field(s)


Copy subfield(s)


Paste field(s)


Paste subfield(s)


Delete field(s)


Delete subfield(s)



Opening a BIB Record Using the Search Tab

When starting a new title, always begin with a clean slate. Close all other records and items that may be open in ALEPH.

Search the OCLC number in ALEPH to find the corresponding BIB record.


  1. Select the “Search” tab with the binoculars icon.
  1. Select “[B] Browse”.
  1. Select “Title (TTL)” from the drop-down box in the Headings List.
  1. Type the first part of your title into the “Enter Starting Text” box.  Some journals can be found by only using a few letters.  Others, such as :Journal of the American …” may require more words.

            Hit the “Go” button or the Enter key to bring up the BIB record(s) associated with that title. If you do not land on the correct title, you can browse up or down the list until you find it, or re-enter your search.

  1. Select the record with the correct title.  Because print and electronic and microforms should all be on different records, there may be multiple records displayed.
    1. Different vendors offering the same EJournal title will have different records.
    2. We are still grappling with duplicate print records in Aleph.  If you see multiple print records, please let Hank know.
  1. Hit the “Catalog” button to open the BIB record(s).  Select the appropriate one to add your title.

Using ‘Find’ to Search for Records

If too many record options come up with ‘Browse’ search option, you can use the ‘Find’ search option to limit the records down to the sublibrary holdings they have. This is useful since you know the record should have UF sublibrary holding.

To use the ‘Find’ feature, click on the binoculars and then click on the ‘Find’ option. In the Advanced Search tab that will appear to the right, make sure the first two drop-down bars are for (Title) and (Sublibrary only).

To the right of the drop-down, enter in the title you are looking for and the sublibrary you are looking for.

In this case, ALEPH found two records that matched the search. If ALEPH does not open the records automatically, click ‘Show’ to see the records.

In this example, the second record is the one we were searching for. Note: You can also search by date and a lot of other sorting factors, but searching by Library and Sublibrary is the preferred method.

Reviewing the BIB Record

Once you’ve accessed the BIB record, examine it and confirm that the data in the BIB record matches the physical item you are processing. This will help you if you suspect there has been a title change, or a frequency change.  If you suspect either of these, please let Hank know.

NEVER EDIT THE BIB RECORD. Do not make any alterations, even if you find discrepancies or problems. These edits need to be made in OCLC and should be directed to the Serials Cataloging Unit.  Sometimes the changes will already be in OCLC, and Serials Cataloging will just need to overlay the record we have, which only takes a few seconds.  If there are no obvious issues with the BIB record, proceed with your examination.


  1. In the ISSN field (022), see if there is a correct ($a) ISSN number. This particular example of a serial record doesn’t have an ISSN, as is the case with many titles published before 1970. If there is no ISSN number, you can proceed without it. You should not need to do this every time, as you will see many of the same titles over and over again.

  1. In the System No. field (035), confirm that the item has an OCLC number. If not, please contact Hank.   You should not need to do this every time, as you will see many of the same titles over and over again.

  1. Compare the Main Title field (245) to the title page of the physical item. Do not trust the spine!  If the imprint (260 or 264) does not match, it does not need reported, but you can let Hank know.

  1. Review the Dates of Pub. field (362). The physical items you have must fall within the range listed in this field. Items with the same or very similar titles may not be all on the same record. If the record lacks a 362 field, this is not a problem.  Currently received serials should not have an end date.  If they do, check the 785 field to see if there is a later title and use the OCLC number there to look up the next title, and repeat this until you get to the current BIB record.  Sometimes serials change their names back to a previous title, but those titles will require a new record.

  1. Check to see if there are any major issues with the BIB record, such as:

  • Catal. Source field (040) says “CARP”. If so, the record will need to be overlaid by Serials Cataloging.

  • Status (STA) field that says “PROVISIONAL”. If you have a provisional record, it needs to be linked to an OCLC number. Report to Serials Cataloging.
  • We are working on fixing both of these issues, but they will continue to plague us for a while.

Sometimes, reviewing the 5XX and 7XX notes before moving on to the HOL record can be helpful. Notes in the 5XX might indicate the presence of cumulative indexes (555) and/or supplements (525). They might also note any peculiar or irregular numbering patterns (515). For example, this 515 note here is letting us know something that might have looked confusing when the processor was scanning the items in the run:



Other useful fields to watch for include 780 (preceding entry) and 785 (succeeding entry), especially if the physical items in hand fall outside of the publication dates in the 362 field. The 776 (Additional Physical Form Entry) often lists online or electronic formats of the print title; this field can be helpful when differentiating the print ISSN from the electronic or online ISSN (which should be treated as $y—incorrect).  


If you don’t want to search for the title, you can search instead by ISSN.

The International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is a standardized identification code for continuing resources/periodical publications/serials. It appears like two sets of four digits separated by a hyphen (e.g., 1234-5678). ISSN assignment is coordinated by a network of national ISSN centers, and every assigned ISSN is registered in an international database called the ISSN Register. Because the ISSN was developed in the early 1970s, many pre-1970 serials lack ISSNs, but some have had them retroactively assigned.

A serial title is assigned a unique ISSN for every format. The print format will have a different ISSN than the microfilm format of the same title, and the CD-ROM format will have a different ISSN than the online format. An ISSN-L (022 subfield l) will be the same for all formats of the journal, and will usually match the print edition.  A title change will also prompt the assignment of a new ISSN. If you come across two titles with the same ISSNs in the 022a field, report it to Hank.  If the ISSN is in a different subfield, you can ignore this.

ISSNs help to identify serials and the various format manifestations a title may take. ISSNs also assist in the linking and retrieval of related records if they are included in the 700 fields on a record. For example, ISSNs help differentiate between earlier and later titles, main title and supplement records, and print and electronic formats. Patrons can also search for titles by the ISSN.

Duplicate OCLCs/ISSNs

Sometimes an OCLC number will have multiple BIB records in Alma.  We are working on fixing these problems.  If you encounter them, please let Hank know.


Determining Correct Enumeration/Chronology

Do not trust the spine when determining appropriate enumeration.  The title page is the preferable point of reference for determining proper enumeration, followed by the cover, then the masthead or banner.  If there none of these exist or can be easily found or have the enumeration or chronology, then feel free to go to the spine.


Examples of a banner and a masthead


Slashes vs. Dashes


In item records, sometimes you will have a combined issue.  Although the piece may state that it is volume 23, numbers 3-4, you should record this as v.23:no.3/4.  The difference is that the slash (/) tells other people in the library that this piece was issued by the publisher as a single instance of this publication.  If we said v.23:no.3-4, with a dash (-), that would mean we had bound two different pieces together.  Since we no longer commercially bind items together, the later will rarely affect you, but if you send things to be bound in-house, it can still show up in the holdings record.  Where this becomes important is when changing the holdings record (HOL).

Example 1: You have three items, v.1(1990/1991), v.2(1991/1992), and v.3(1992/1993). When a volume spans two years on the title page, it is necessary to show both of those years in your condensed HOL statement.


Example 2: You have a run of items, all individually published, and some span over multiple years.

Since t.50 spans 1916 and 1917, but t.106 only spans 1972, the correct year range for the ‘I’ subfield is 1916/1917-1972.

Example 3: You have an item that, with one title page, states it contains v.3(1990) and v.4(1991). Since the publisher published these together, they would be processed as v.3/4(1990/1991) instead of v.3(1990)-v.4(1991).


This same rule applies for indexes published together.

Alternative Enumeration

Alternative enumeration is when the enumeration of an item is not primary or secondary but instead also called by some other enumeration. This is expressed by an equal sign between the two enumeration options.

This is common in Judaica, where there are dates in both the Gregorian Calendar and the Hebrew Calendar, but it also shows up in many other contexts.  One example is a magazine that re-starts it’s numbering with no.1 every volume, but also keeps a running count of what number it is, independent of the volume number (Time, Newsweek, and US News and World Report all do this).

Note: Only include the alternative enumeration if it is consistent with all of the issues you have.

EXAMPLE: The primary and secondary enumeration, ser.4:v.1, equals, meaning it is also called, no.151. The number is not a third enumeration but instead an alternative enumeration for the item. Use g as a subfield as it stands for alternative numbering scheme.



Chronology as Enumeration

You may encounter items where the enumeration are only years or years with seasons or months as a second chronology. In this case, the chronology becomes the primary enumeration and takes the subfield $a.

If you have gaps and need to include the secondary chronology of months or seasons, then enter it into the $b subfield instead of the usual $j because it is now acting as the secondary enumeration in your holding.

Non-Chronological Numbering or Dates

If you come across a record that has non-chronological enumeration, how you process it will depend on the individual record. 

EXAMPLE 1: no.7(1952), no.8(1964), no.10(1966), no.12(1966), no.13(1968), no.14(1955), no.15(1971)

Since the enumeration of this title is not in chronological order, you have to decide how to do the pairs. The first step would be to go back to the bib record. Check to make sure that there is a 500 or 515 note disclosing that the items are issued out of chronological order. If there is not a 5xx note specifying this, please let Hank know. Then, check other 5xx notes or the 362 to see how previous catalogers have referred to the items, by number or by year. In this case, it was by number.

Had the catalog referred to the item by its years instead, it would look like:



When you enter in the item description, enter in both the number and the year for the individual items, as you normally would, but when doing the pairs, leave either the years or numbers off, as shown above. This will prevent patron confusion when they are browsing our available items.

Secondary Enumeration/Chronology

Secondary enumeration/chronology (such as numbers of a volume or months of a year) should only be cited in the HOL record when material at the secondary level is missing. If everything at the volume level is complete, don’t bother with secondary enumeration or chronology.  This will only affect bound volumes.

When, for whatever reason, secondary enumeration/chronology is necessary and both secondary enumeration (such as number) and secondary chronology (such as month) are present on the title page, include both. Do not just add the number or just add the months when both are present. Also, if possible, only cite the missing material’s number and months.

EXAMPLE: In this quarterly journal, volumes 7 through 9 are complete, volume 10 is missing the fourth issue, and volumes 11 through 14 are complete. Since volume 10 is the only volume missing material at the secondary level, it is only necessary to cite the issue numbers ($b) and month ($j) on volume 10.


EXAMPLE 2: In this monthly journal, volumes 72-80 have numbers (1 through 12) and months (January through December) listed on the title page, but nothing is missing. It’s not necessary to note numbers and months in the pairs because everything is present.





Cite secondary enumeration/chronology in the item record description only when 1) uniqueness needs to be established, such as a single volume split between items, and/or 2) secondary material is missing.






Bd.1:Heft 1-3(1972)
Bd.1:Heft 4-6(1972)
Bd.4:Heft 1-3(1975)
Bd.4:Heft 4-6(1975)


Bd.1:Heft 1-3(1972)
Bd.1:Heft 4-6(1972)
Bd.2:Heft 1-6(1973)
Bd.3:Heft 1-6(1974)
Bd.4:Heft 1-3(1975)
Bd.4:Heft 4-6(1975)

Note: If page numbers are the only secondary enumeration available, it is okay to use them. The caption for them is ‘p.’.

Enumeration/Chronology Changes

Enumeration and chronology changes usually show up in the form of a language change, a new series, primary level changes, etc.

Note: Item records need to reflect the enumeration/chronology on their respective title pages, not stay consistent with the previous item records.

EXAMPLE 1: The primary level of enumeration added the level “new series”. A new series indicates a major upheaval in the journal’s life, usually accompanied by renumbering the series as if it were new.


A non-gap break is necessary here because v.12 is 1952 and new ser.:v.1 is 1957. There was nothing published between 1953 and 1956, and the non-gap break makes that clear. In the action note, the entirety of the first caption enumeration is listed, followed by a semi-colon (showing a non-gap break), followed by the new enumeration.

Sample Items:
new ser.:v.1(1957)
new ser.:v.2(1958)
new ser.:v.3(1959)

EXAMPLE 2: The primary level of enumeration changes three times. 


We do not need a non-gap break between the first two enumeration changes because the years are continuous, but we do have one between the second and third because the years are not and we have gathered from the bibliographic record that nothing was published in 1974.

Sample Items:
t.40(1951)- t.62(1973)

EXAMPLE 3: The secondary enumeration changes from English to German and then back to English during its run.

This example demonstrates two issues. First, it shows how to correctly separate three changes in enumeration. Then, it shows how to do your pairs when the enumeration goes from English, to German, and then back to English. When this happens, you need three 853s, even though the first and third look identical, because otherwise it will not display properly in the OPAC.

new ser.:v.1-2(1951-1953)
new ser.:Bd.23-24(1983-1984)
new ser.:v.31-32(1991-1992)

EXAMPLE 4: This singular item used the Greek alphabet letters as the understood primary enumeration instead of v. and then changes to v. as a secondary enumeration, as well as dropping the date.


EXAMPLE 5: The chronology changes from year and season to year and month.


Seasonal Chronology

85X/86X Pairs ($j)

Action Notes

Items Records














In the 85X/86X pairs, use the appropriate numerical codes for seasons. When entering chronological codes for seasons in the pairs, use $j (second level of chronology).

In the items records, use seasons abbreviations with the first letter capitalized.


Some serials will flip back and forth regularly each year between months and seasons.  Simply use (month) in these cases.

Example: We have a serial issued 10 times a year.  Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Spring, July, Aug., Sept., Fall, and Dec.

We have v.1 (1983)-v.2 (1984) complete.  v.3 is missing no.4 (April 1985) and no.8 (Sept. 1985)









Non-Captioned Enumeration

Sometimes enumeration is “floating” on the title page without a caption (such as v., no., pt.). This non-captioned enumeration typically takes the form of a letter or number. For primary enumeration, list $a in the 853 as “(unit)”, whether the enumeration is a letter or a number. For the secondary enumeration, list $b in the 853 as “(unit)” also for numbers or letters. The parentheses indicate that the caption is assumed, and will not display in the public catalog.  NOTE: Sometimes you will see (*) instead of (unit) … this is ok, but not preferred.


If the enumeration changes from non-captioned to captioned, enter in a second 853 to distinguish between the changes.

Implied Caption and/or Enumeration

Common with monographic sets but sometimes occurring in periodicals, some items may not specifically state numbering but instead have implied enumeration, or may not specifically state captioning but it may be used elsewhere and therefore be helpful to use. This implied enumeration or caption helps distinguish the items in the set from each other.

For an implied caption and/or enumeration, we use brackets. The brackets communicate that you are implying the information and that the item did not specifically state the information.

When implied caption and enumeration are needed, brackets must be placed around both the caption and the enumeration in the item description, pairs, and holding statement.

For the brackets to appear correctly in the online catalog, you may have to place the brackets in several specific places in the pairs, as shown above.

Item records

Creating Item Records

As a general rule, you will have an item record already in a record, and you can just duplicate it and edit it as needed.  However; there are instances there you will need to create new item records from scratch. First, access the items by double-clicking ‘Items’ under the UFU50 tab.



Once in the item records, click on the ‘New’ button in the right-hand tool bar. An empty record will open.


Enter in the Holding link and then click on “Refresh”.  This will not save the item record, but it will auto-fill the Sublibrary and Collection. And add a temporary barcode number.  You will need to add the rest of the information.  Unless you have damaged items, this information will be the same for all items you create and is as shown below:

Formatting the Item Description

Item descriptions should be formatted in the same manner as your holding record. If the item you are entering has an enumeration of v.7 and a chronology of 1976, then the description should appear as: v.7(1976). Enter 7 in the Enum.Level.1 (A)(Vol.) field and 1976 in the Chron. Level.1 field.

Adding primary enumeration (or chronology, if there is no enumeration) to the Enum. Level.1 in the item record is mandatory. Adding chronology to the Chron. Level.1 field is also required when that information is present on the title page. When present, secondary levels of enumeration and chronology should be entered in the Enum. Level.2 and Chron. Level.2 fields so that the items are sorted correctly. These fields are numerical only; use number codes for months and seasons.

While the primary function of these fields is to ensure the item records sort properly, secondarily, they should remain as true to the actual enumeration as possible. Only deviate from the actual enumeration/chronology in the rare case when it causes the record to sort incorrectly, such as if the winter (24) issue was published before the spring (21) issue.   

Then, scan in the item’s barcode and it will save the record. Always double check to make sure that the barcode scanned fully. Oftentimes, the scanner will only scan some of the barcode’s numbers but it will save the record as if you have scanned the entire thing. Incomplete barcodes are time consuming to fix down the line, so check every single one after you scan it.

As you continue to make changes, click the Update button in the tool bar on the right-hand side to save the item record.

As stated in the holding formatting guidelines, slashes and hyphens mean different things. For a full explanation of when either should be used, click here.

Tab over to Serial Levels, and enter in the Chron. Level.1 and, if any, Chron. Level.2 information. The enumeration information will auto-populate based on what you entered in the General Information (1) tab.

Save the record and it is complete.

Note: With enumeration in item records, while consistency is preferred, you do not have to add extraneous secondary enumeration just because the previous processor did. Some records were created many years ago before consistent formatting was implemented, and thus may mismatch the formatting of the items you are adding. If only a few previous items have extraneous information, fix them to match the items you are adding. If a lot of items need to be modified, bring it to your supervisor for a case by case decision on whether or not it is necessary to take the time to change them all. 

Note: In the item records, it is unnecessary to cite indexes if they are “self-contained” within a bound volume or are part of an issue. For example, if there is a small index at the end of each volume of a series that covers only that volume, it does not need to be cited. Indexes only need to be cited if they contain information on multiple items. See the following examples:






v.1:no.2(2019: Apr.)
v.1:no.3(2019: July)
v.1:no.4(2019: Oct.)+Index:v.1(2019) – where the index is part of the 4th issue.

Formatting Item Descriptions, Pairs, and Holdings with Day Chronology

When you have a magazine or journal that is published more than once a month, it may be necessary to show the chronology down to the day. You may need to only do this in the item descriptions and then show the volumes as complete in the pairs and holding, or you may need to show the days in all three areas.

In the item description, for chronology, first list the year, then month, and then the day of the publication. If you abbreviate the month, like Apr., then you should add the day without a space, but if the month does not have an abbreviation (May, June and July) then add a space before the day.

In the pairs, list the days in the chronology ‘k’ field. The word day would also be in parenthesis, like year and month, in the 853.

In your holding statement, if your volumes are complete, the volume would appear as such, i.e. v.74(2016). If your volume is not complete and it needs to be spelled out, format it the same way you did in the item description.   NOTE: In the HOL pairs, the date must have 2 digits (01, 02, 03 … 31) but you do not need the initial zero in the Description field.



Missing items at issue level

NOTE: This will only pertain to the, now rare, microfilm reel or bound volume

If your item has missing material, you will have to include that information in the item record. Do NOT use any variation if “inc.” in the description. The item description should simply list the item—i.e. v.2(1986)—while the OPAC note should state what is missing (missing no.4(July), in this instance) in Tab 3.

Now, the item will have a red check next to it, which will inform others to check the note. The note will also appear in the public catalog for patrons to see what material is missing.

Moving Items without Moving the Holding

If you are working within a record and notice that some of the items are on the wrong record, it is possible to move the items from one record to another.  These instructions are located at .  But it is best to contact the Serials Cataloging Unit, and we can move them for you.

Holding Records

After you have created item records for the items you have, you will either create a new holding record or edit an existing holding record.


Creating a New Holding Record






  1. Select the tab, “4. HOL Records”. All existing holdings will display below.

  1. This new holding will show at the top of the list. It will be a group of generated numbers rather than a location. Click on it and hit the “Edit” button to open the new HOL.






The newly generated HOL record will already have five fields:

  • Leader (LDR)
  • Owner (OWN)
  • Fixed Data (008)
  • Link (LKR)
  • Location (852)

The HOL record requires the following actions, which are all further detailed in the sections below:

  1. Create 85X/86X pairs.
  2. Change the following information in the following fields:
    1. LDR – You will need to open up this field using <Control>-F, then change the second field form x to y, and the third field from 1 to 4.  

            2. 008 You will also need <Control>-F to open this field, then change          Completeness to 0 (zero).  Everything else should be correct

If you create a holding by mistake, or create more than one, refer to the section on deleting holding records.

LDR and 008 Fixed Fields

A quick guide to using the VolumesHoldingsEncoding macro:

For existing HOL:

  1. Check the type of bib and 300 field to determine if it is a serial, single-part monograph, or multipart monograph (monographic series).
  2. Check the LDR in the HOL and make sure the correct Type of record is used:
    1. y = Serial
    2. x = Single-part monograph
    3. v = Multipart monograph
  3. Check the LDR in the HOL and make sure the correct Encoding level is used:
    1. 1 = Single-part monograph
    2. 4 = Multipart monograph or Serial
  4. For serials and multipart monographs check that the Completeness is a 0.


Adding a 852 Field

A newly generated HOL will usually already have an 852 location field. It will need to be edited/replaced.

You will need to add subfields a, b and c.  Subfield a will be “FU”.  The b and c subfield will vary depending on your branch and what collection code these items are for.  Some of you will have more than one subcollection to handle.

If the first indicator is not a 0 (zero), then you will probably need to make it a zero and correct the call number.  There will be exceptions, and you will know who you are.

Sometimes. the HOL will generate without an 852 location field, and in this case you will need to add it.  Just press “F6” to get a new field and add as per the above instructions.

Subfield $a is the institution code, subfield $b is the collection, and subfield $c is the sublibrary, h and i are for the call number.


85X/86X pairs

The purpose of the 85X/86X pairs is to indicate available material in the public catalog. The pairs can be thought of as a formula in which you enter in the information and it populates as a holding record in the OPAC. You can check the public catalog for how your holding appears to ensure accuracy at

Before creating the pairs, survey the items at hand to establish what material is present.

Assume the example title has the following items: v.1(1917)-v.3(1920).


Adding 853/863 Pairs

The 853/863 pairs establish basic bibliographic units (in other words, standard volumes that aren’t supplements or indexes).

853s are for the captions. Captions are the variables used before the enumeration to tell you what the number is, such as volumes or tomo.  863s are for the enumeration and chronology. Enumeration is a numbered list while chronology is the timeline in which it occurs. 

Missing Items at the Volume Level

If, for example, v.2(1918/1919) was missing from the above example, we would need to show that there is a gap in the material. This can be done through the above macro.

After entering in the 853 information, your 863 link number box pops up. Enter in 10 for the first set of material.

Then, enter in all of the material before the gap.

For our example, v.1 is 1917 and 1918 published together by the publisher, so it is typed with a slash.

The next window pertains to the creation of additional 863s. For this example, there is a gap break, meaning that material that was apparently published appears to be missing.



Since we have a missing item, click on Gap break and then OK.

For the next link/sequence number, enter 20. Follow the prompts in the subsequent windows for the rest of the material in the title: v.3(1919/1920). Once all material is accounted for, indicate that there are no other 863s that correspond to the 853.

The macro will then ask you if you wish to add another 853 field. In this example, there is nothing else to add, so you would select No.

The macro will finish and save the record. The completed pairs should appear as such:

For circumstances that would merit more than one 853 field, please refer to the documentation on Enumeration/Chronology Changes.  


Missing Items at Issue Level

If you are missing items at the issue level, you may want to single out the material missing issues in the 863s. This method is referred to as the Ugly Duckling method.  It is not required, but some people feel it makes it easier for the patron to understand.

Observe the above example, and note that volume 10 appears to be missing issue number 3. Since v.10 is missing issues, the material must be separated out in such a way that this missing issue is clearly noted, but that extraneous information—such as issue numbers—does not have to be specified for complete items. This is what we call the Ugly Duckling; since volume 10 is the only volume in the example missing an issue, volume 10 will be the only volume whose issue numbers must be listed out.

In this example, we have volumes 1-12 in our possession, but volume 10 is missing issue number 3. As stated above, we do not want to have our pairs detail the issue numbers for volumes 1-9 and 11-12, since nothing is missing from these volumes. The first 863 should list everything that is complete before volume 10, e.g. volumes 1-9. After entering the appropriate information for v.1-9, when asked by the macro if there is another item with this link number (853), you will select Break.

Break is the selection to use when separating out a “duckling” from the rest of the items. Break simply means that you wish to create a new 863 field, but there is no missing item (i.e. gap break) between them.

Now let’s create the pairs for volume 10, our incomplete volume. Since something is missing at the issue-level, the first 863 will need to include the second level of enumeration—in this case, no.—as well as the first level of enumeration in order to accurately show what is missing. The same holds true for chronology; in this example, we will need to specify both the year and the months for the issues we have. The first 863 pair should include all parts of volume 10 before the missing item. In this case, this is no.1-2, which correspond with the months of January and February, respectively, (Note that when entering months into the pairs macro, you use only their corresponding two-digit numbers, not their full names or abbreviations). When prompted to add another 863 field by the macro, select Gap break to show that there is a missing item between this pair and the next.

Now our next pair will include all issues of volume 10 after the missing item. In this example, there is one issue per month for a grand total of 12 per volume. Since it is issue number 3 that is missing, this next pair will include no.4-12. After entering this information, we would once again select Break when asked if we wish to create another 863, as there is nothing missing between the last issue of volume 10 and the start of volume 11.

Now that we are finished separating out our incomplete volume, the last pair would show volumes 11-12. Since both of these volumes are complete, just as with v.1-9 before, we would not need to go into any secondary enumeration or chronology. Consult the example image on the top of the previous page to see how the Ugly Duckling method will look once completed.

Note: Even though the 863s span multiple issues but only one year, you would enter in the year once (1910) instead of twice (1910-1910).



Gap and Non-Gap Breaks

Gaps and non-gap breaks in the 863 pairs are shown through the subfield $w as either ‘g’ for gap or ‘n’ for non-gap.

Only use a gap break when you are positive that material is missing. For example, if you have v.1(1990) and v.3(1992), and the bibliographic record does not say anything about v.2(1991) not being published, then you can put a $w g in the pairs to show that v.2 is missing, as well as listing it in the completeness reviewed 583 action note, $z.

If you have another range of items, v.3(1980)-v.5(1982), and v.3 contains numbers 1-5 but v.4 only contains v.1-4, you would first need to check the bibliographic for the frequency (field 310). In this example, since the BIB says it is “irregular”, we would not assume that v.4 is missing no.5 and therefore would not put a gap break between v.4 and v.5.

Non-gap breaks will be used even less frequently than gap breaks. Non-gap breaks should be used when an item was not published and you want to clarify that it is not missing material OR to show that there is not a gap between two 863 fields. You would only know that an item was not published from the bibliographic record and usually from a 515 note.

For example, if you have v.1-4 and v.6-10, and the bibliographic record states that v.5 was not published, you would put a $w n in between the two runs, or just list it as complete since nothing is missing.



That is the only time a non-gap break is needed. It is not needed when doing the Ugly Duckling Method or for changes of enumeration. You would just list the material as it is with no reference to missing or not missing unless there is actual missing material or not published material.

Adding 854/864 Pairs for Supplements

Adding 854/864 pairs is necessary when material includes supplements. Supplements are extra material included with a title to provide more information. The title page of the supplement item may say ‘supplement’, but sometimes it may say ‘commemorative’, ‘special’, etc.

You can enter in a $z note for the title of the supplement on a case by case basis if it is necessary to distinguish it from something else within the record. 

The VolumeHoldingsPairs macro can be used to create supplement pairs.

When you choose the macro, it will prompt you to select whether you are adding a volumes, a supplement, or an index.

After choosing supplement, you will select the enumeration and chronology caption, enter in the information, and it will populate the fields just like for the 853/863 pairs. Make sure to include the information for the supplement, not for the item it is attached to, if possible. For example, if it is a supplement to volume 4, but is attached to volume 5, you would list it according to what it actually is, not its location.


Adding 85x/86x Pairs Manually

While it is preferred that a macro is used to enter in the pairs and action notes to limit mistakes and insure uniformity, the information can be entered manually, if needed. 

To manually add the pairs:

85x/86x pairs

853/863           Enum bibUnit
854/864           Supplements
855/865           Indexes

  1. Type F6 to create a new field
    1. Type 853        
    2. Type 2 for the first indicator and 0 for the second indicator
    3. Add the following subfields when applicable(type F7 to create new subfield)

8 1
a v.
b no.
c pt.
i (year)
j month

  1. Type F6 to create a new field
    1. Type 863
    2. Type 4 for the first indicator and 0 for the second indicator
    3. Add the following subfields when applicable (type F7 to create new subfield). Note that the $a and $i fields listed here are simply examples; what you enter will depend on the items you have.

8 1.10
a 1-37
i 1929-1966
w g (for true gap)
w n (for non-gap breaks)

*Add a new 863 if gaps exist

8 1.20
a 39-71          
i 1969-1999

  1. Repeat process to create fields for indexes and supplements

NOTE: for Indexes, leave Indicators blank.

Editing an Existing Holding Record (HOL)

When opening a bibliographic record in ALEPH, be sure to review the holdings (HOL) records attached to it. Sometimes there are duplicates, and this is appropriate when the library had more than one subscription, but nowadays this is exceedingly rare to have more than one active HOL.


  • Confirm that the link and sequence numbers in $8 of the 86X fields are added and changed appropriately (1.10, 1.20, 1.30, 1.40, and so forth). When you get to 1.90, the next 863 should be 1.100, then 1.110, 1.120, etc…  You will find many records where people were under the mistaken impression that you could not go higher than 1.99.  Ensure they are in sequential order and do not repeat.  Some very old records first 863 will have a subfield 8 value of 8!

  • Note gaps with $w, when necessary. If missing material has been added to fill gaps, be sure to remove gap subfields.  There should never be a $w on the last holding.

  • Go to the Item Records and add in all of the items you are adding to the record.

  • Add the current issues to the “copy 1” of your location.  If there are current holdings on more than 1 HOL, try to combine them all unique items into one HOL – even if some items were originally discarded from copy 1 when the collection was weeded.  It is better that the patron have to shift through as few holdings as possible.


Suppressing Holdings

You have the ability to delete holdings that were created accidentally for any reason. However, you also have the ability to suppress holdings.  

To suppress a UF holding, create an STA field by pressing F6 to create a field and entering in STA, tabbing over twice, and in the subfield $a enter SUPPRESSED.  As a shortcut, you can simply press tab after the STA until the word SUPPRESSED auto-fills.

Deleting Holdings

Extra holdings, whether created accidently or found on duplicate records, can be deleted once any items have been removed from it.

To delete the holding, click Edit Text in the top navigation bar. Then, click Delete Record from Server.

You will receive a prompt verifying that you wish to delete the holding record from the ALEPH server. Click Yes.

Now the extra holding will have be permanently removed from the ALEPH server.

Moving Holdings and Items to a New Title

If a holding appears on the incorrect title, you can move both the holding and its items from the incorrect title to the correct title.  You can also notify any member of the Serials Cataloging Unit, and they will be happy to do it for you.

To do it yourself, you first open up the title containing the holding record you need to move and the title you want to move it to.

Then, click the Split Editor Mode button in the upper right-hand corner (designated by the red arrow). Populate both sides with each record, and then click the Overview Tree button just to the left of the Split Editor Mode button (orange arrow). This will allow you to view all of the holdings and items for each title.

Note: The UFU50 needs to be present for both titles. If it does not appear, unclick the Overview Tree button and double click on the “Items” in the bar on the left-hand side of ALEPH for whichever record does not have an UFU50. Once you do that and return to the bib, the UFU50 should be there. Then, again, click Split Editor and Overview Tree to move the holding.

Now, drag the UFU50 from the record with the correct UF holding on it to the UFU50 on the title in which you want to move the UF holding. It will ask you if you are sure, and once you click OK, you should receive a Drag and Drop- Status box that confirms that all of your items have moved successfully.

Once you click OK, the holding and all of its items will be successfully moved over to the correct title.  (NOTE: This image is for a FLARE title, but the idea is the same)

Microfilm Processing

Vinegar Syndrome in Microfilm Material

Cellulose acetate film was introduced and used by film manufactures in the early 20th century to replace nitrate film, which was extremely flammable. By the 1960s, polyester film was introduced as the acetate base of the acetate film deteriorates over time. This is called “vinegar syndrome” because of the distinct smell of vinegar produced by the decomposing acetate. This happens most often when the film is stored in a warm and moist environment, but it can also occur from the acidic vapors made by film that is decomposing around it. This is the reason we need to remove these items from our collection.

Identifying Vinegar Syndrome

  1. Date:
    1. Anything made after 1965 should be polyester film and therefore is not at risk of having vinegar syndrome
  2. Smell
    1. If you smell vinegar, attempt to locate the specific box that has vinegar syndrome.
    2. When found, spot check that year, every 5-8 reels, for signs of damage.
    3. We can keep smelly polyester but not acetate.
    4. If a polyester box smells, air it out before traying.
  3. Physical appearance
    1. If you smell vinegar, take out the reel to investigate.
    2. For acetate film, when you look through the side of the film pack, the film should be opaque (no light, or only pinpricks of light if the deterioration is causing the film to buckle.) Polyester film should be translucent, allowing you to see a glow of light.
    3. You may notice shrinkage or the brittleness of the film
    4. If the item has crystals and a smell on the film, it has vinegar syndrome.

If you suspect Vinegar Syndrome, please contact Fletcher Durant in the Conservation and Preservation Unit.

Processing Microfilm

If no vinegar syndrome is detected, with the addition of a few steps, the items may be processed as any other serial items.

  1. Verify that the item is on a microfilm record. This information can be found in the 533 (Reprod. Note) field.

On newer records you can find this information in the 337 and 338 fields:

  1. Go back to the items and update the item description to our format.
    1. Items may be one set of dates and another set of dates, non-chronological. Separate these with a semicolon.
      1. 1845:July:30-1851:June:28; 1867:May:31-1867:Sept.:14
  2. Date formatting is year:month day.

  1. Create or edit holding and proceed as normal.

UF Stamps

Every item processed into UF needs to be stamped with a red or black UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA stamp, as well as a stamp identifying which branch the belongs in (with the exception of Library West).  Ideally, this stamp will be placed on the title page, on a white blank surface, but anywhere obvious and legible is fine.  Please do not stamp over people’s faces on the cover of magazines, no matter how much you dislike them.

We also stamp loose maps or posters, if possible, over existing stamps or on labels. CDs should be stamped over any labels.

Note: If an item is withdrawn as a duplicate, place the appropriate stamp of Withdrawn from UF Libraries somewhere on the title page, ideally over any UF markings.

Split Items

Sometimes older materials from two different BIB records has been bound together into a single item. In these cases, notes need to be left to indicate this.

First, consult the Dates of Pub. field (362) in the earlier BIB record for the exact start and end dates for that particular title. In this example, v.42:no.6(1971:June) is the final issue of the title. However, v.42 has twelve issues (no.1-12) that were bound together. The title changed from Amateur athlete to Amateur athlete newsletter halfway through the volume, prompting the creation of a new, separate record.     


(NOTE: This is a FLARE Holding, but the same would hold true for UF, except the UF HOL would lack a 583 field)

For the item’s record, the split item may be added to either record, but it can’t be added to both records. Since the item is on this record, no notes are need in the HOL record.

For the item description in the second tab, list the entirety of the material in that item. In the third tab, add an OPAC note specifying the portion of the item that is part of the other title. For instance, “no.7-12 is a later title” would be an appropriate note to leave in this example.

The OPAC note in the item record will appear in the UF public catalog.

Now, open the later title/succeeding entry and review the 362 to make sure it picks up where the last record ended.


If the split item is the only material on that record, then you will need to create an HOL manually. Add 85X/86X pairs for the items on this record, including the split material that is on the previous record. Add a $z note (public notes that will appear in the UF catalog) at the end of the 86X field where the item splits to specify the portion of the item that is part of the current title but bound along with the earlier title.

The note in the pairs will appear in the UF public catalog and alert patrons that the item is with the previous title.

If you have more than just the split item on the holding, make sure your $z note is after the split material so it will appear next to the correct information in the public catalog.

Note: When processing material that contains two different titles bound together (not preceding/succeeding but two completely different titles), treat the item as a split item and leave OCLC numbers for reference in the OPAC and $z notes.

Damaged items


If a replacement is desired for whatever reason, the material should be treated as damaged. 

If you suspect something is damaged and has not previously been identified as such, please contact the Conservation and Preservation Unit.

Maps and Other Named Supplementary Material

While maps are processed as supplements in the pairs, they are formatted differently in the item description and action notes. This is also true of material that is supplementary in nature but has its own name, such as Special Issues and Addendums.

When the material is attached to a regular item, the item description is done similarly to that of a supplement or index, but with the name of the material instead. For example, if you have v.4(1990) and it has maps, your item description would appear as v.4(1990)+Maps. If it is its own item, it would be Map:1990, depending on the available information on the title page.

Supplements can be classified as either part of your items or as their own, individual items. Sometimes, the item in question is part of the regular series enumeration, but simply has a special designation, such as “special issue”. As with an index with item enumeration, a special issue that is a regular part of your items, i.e. v.11(1968) would be counted in your pairs as a regular item, with the item description, pairs, and action notes all stating v.11(1968).

If the supplement exists in addition to the items, as in it is supplementary to an already existing v.11(1968), then check with the selector to see how they would like it to be treated.  It can be analyzed (cataloged as a monograph) with the same call number as the serial or with a completely different call number, if the selector wants to have the items shelved with other items of the same subject.  It can even be treated BOTH a serial and analyzed.  Please refer all items that need ot be analyzed to the Serials Cataloging Unit.

If it is treated as just another part of the serial, it is processed and formatted as a supplement. Its item description would use its title, whether it is simply “supplement” or “special issue”, etc. It will have supplement pairs, and be called by its title in the action notes. For this example, the material was called Supplement on the title page, so we know it is additional material to the existing v.11(1968). As such, its item description will include the prefix Suppl. before the enumeration.

In this next example, you have regular items that range from v.5(1985)-v.20(2000) plus an addendum for v.7(1987) as a separate item.

Note: This would all be done the same even if the item was attached to a regular item instead of having its own, individual barcode. If it was, it would be +Addendum in the item description, but the following information about the pairs would be the same.

For your supplement pairs, you will need to add the title Addendum to the ‘a’ subfield for it to generate the correct HOL statement in the UF catalog, as it appears below:

This is the rule for maps, addendums, special issues, and any other named supplementary items. If the supplement is simply titled “supplement”, then you do not need to add “suppl.” to the ‘a’ subfield, as the supplement pairs will do that automatically.

Note: While the item description formatting includes a colon (Addendum:v.7), it is removed in the action notes (Addendum v.7).

Adding 855/865 Pairs for Indexes

Indexes are alphabetical lists of the names, subjects, etc. that occur within a given text. Adding 855/865 pairs is necessary when material includes indexes that include material beyond that in a single item, or indexes that are published as individual items. That is, do not mention indexes that are “self-contained” within an item in the pairs or in the item description. Indexes that should be mentioned include cumulative indexes, author indexes, subject indexes, etc., that span multiple items.






In some cases, it may be necessary to refer back to the BIB record for index details.

Indexes are entered in the pairs in the same manner as basic bibliographic units. Enter in the information that corresponds to the material the index covers, not the location of the index. If the index covers v.1(1985)-v.25(2010) but is located in v.25(2010), you would enter in v.1/25(1985/2010) in your pairs.

Reminder: Indexes published together use slashes instead of dashes.

The VolumeHoldingsPairs macro can be used to create index pairs.

Example 1: Here, your index is published as an individual item containing v.1 through v.25. Because it is published together, we use a slash to describe it. 



Example 2: Here, because the index is published in two separate items and not all together, we use a dash to describe it. This would also apply if the indexes were attached to regular items, like v.10(1995)+Index:v.1/10(1985/1995).


Indexes with enumeration

When you have an index that is also part of the normal run of your items, your item description should show the enumeration and chronology designated for that item; the item’s status as an index should not be reflected in the item description in these scenarios. Instead, an OPAC note should be made specifying that the item is an index and what information it covers.

For example, in this BIB record, 60(1946) is an index for 1-59. It does not contain new information, just the index, but it is enumerated like the other, regular items in the run instead of just as an index.

When you run across this situation, enter in the item’s enumeration in the item description. Then, add an OPAC note specifying that the item is an “Index for t.1-59.”

How you do your pairs will depend on how the material is referred to in the bibliographic record. If the BIB specifies that the volume is an index, then you only list the item in the 853/863 pairs as 60(1946). If the BIB does not specify that the item is an index, then the item is counted in your 853/863 pairs as 60(1946) and then again as 1-59(1941-1945) in your 855/865 index pairs.


In the 85X/86X pairs, a plus sign (+) is used to distinguish ordinal numbers (first, second, third, fourth) from cardinal numbers (one, two, three, four). Sometimes, the plus sign will be followed with the form of the ordinal enumeration (+conf., +v., +Bd., +ed., +año, +congress) or ordinal chronology (+qtr., +trim.). But, if the ordinal has no caption (simply “4th”, etc.), use a lone plus sign.

Both enumeration and chronology can be ordinal, such as the 20th conference or 3rd quarter. Be true to the title page, as always; if the title page says “3rd Volume” rather than “Volume 3”, it must be processed as an ordinal. 

EXAMPLE 1: Proceedings from the 1st conference in 1980 through the 20th conference in 2000.

EXAMPLE 2: The third quarter of a volume is missing.

Items:  v.1(1932:1st qtr.)
           v.1(1932:2nd qtr.)
           v.1(1932:4th qtr.)

Foreign language ordinals are treated a little differently.

For the action notes and item records, use a period in place of the foreign language ordinal indicator.


Item: 20.année:no 224(1932:mai)

Ideally, the ordinal indicator of the pairs will display in the public catalog according to the language code on the record (in this case, “fre” for French). Unfortunately, they’ve been displaying in English lately and it’s in the process of being corrected.

Note: Items that have the enumeration in front of the caption but are not ordinals like, for example, “4.Bd”, cannot use the + sign as it will make it an ordinal. Instead, process the item as a regular item, “Bd.4”, in the pairs, as that is more accurate then it reading as an ordinal in the catalog. Do keep it as the title page has it in the item description and action notes; simply be aware of that the necessary formatting means it will not be a perfect match in the pairs.


(Sections of this glossary were taken from the Cataloging Guidelines for the Florida State University System and State College System Bibliographic Database.)

Authority record — A record intended to establish one form of an access point and to link that form to all other variant forms so that all bibliographic records related to the heading may be retrieved using one command. Sometimes informally referred to as “see” and “see also” records.  Authority records are used in cataloging for the online verification process and to produce cross references in the public access catalog.

Bibliographic record (or BIB) — A record comprised of metadata that describes the intellectual content and physical characteristics of a resource.

Copy Cataloging — The process of reviewing an OCLC record against the ALEPH record, overlaying an existing OCLC record in ALEPH, or bringing an existing OCLC record into ALEPH.

Copy Editing — The process of editing an existing OCLC record for improvement or accuracy.

CONSER — Cooperative Online Serials Program, the most-followed authority for serials cataloging.

Delimiter — A symbol that separates data elements (subfields) within a MARC record. Represented in Connexion by a double-dagger symbol (|ǂ), while other resources use a dollar sign ($). Examples: |ǂt or $a.

DLC — The symbol found in the 040 field of a MARC record denoting that the record was produced by the Library of Congress (LC).

Encoding level (bibliographic) – The degree of completeness of a MARC bibliographic record as symbolized in the fixed field section of the record. Sometimes referred to as PCC, Full-level cataloging, Partial-level cataloging, or Minimal-level cataloging. Also used to indicate unacceptable records (vendor, in-process, and reported for deletion).

Field — A location of fixed or variable length in a MARC record that is reserved for specific information about the item the record represents. A field may be comprised of one or more subfields.

Filing indicator — The indicator associated with MARC 130, 222, 240, 245, 730, 740, and 830 title fields. The value for this indicator identifies to the computer the number of characters and spaces to skip before indexing the field. It is used to skip initial articles (e.g., a title with the first word of “The” would have a filing indicator of 4 to identify to the computer that the title begins in the fifth position of the field

Full-level cataloging – See Encoding level.  A record which has been fully-cataloged with the item in-hand, but may have access points (names or subjects) which do not meet PCC standards.

Full record — The most complete bibliographic record, including all fields and subfields needed to identify and describe the item.

Gap — A break or discontinuity in the sequence of enumeration or chronology, or both, of a serial or multi-volume s et held by a reporting institution. This term does not refer to a break or discontinuity in the publication pattern.

Indicator — The first two character positions at the beginning of each MARC variable data field, after the 3 digit field designator, containing values which interpret or supplement the field tag definition. For example, a 0 as the second indicator in the subject heading field identifies the data that follows as being a Library of Congress subject heading (LCSH). Each indicator is interpreted based on the type of field, placement, and value.

Institutional identifier – A unique 2 or 3 letter code used to represent an institution; denotes that a field/link is attached to/used by that particular institution.

Integrating resource – A resource that is added to or changed over time by updates that are incorporated into it (Example: loose-leafs, databases, web sites). This is typically represented by a value of 2 in the S/L bit of the fixed field (008) of a MARC bibliographic record.

ISBD — International Standard Bibliographic Description. Punctuation convention used for entering data into a bibliographic record. The usage of punctuation is determined by the International Standard Bibliographic Description committee.

ISBN — International Standard Book Number. A unique number that identifies a specific edition of a title. An ISBN may be assigned to a single volume or a set of volumes.

ISSN — International Standard Serial Number. A unique number that identifies a specific serial publication title. An ISSN may change with a title change of the publication or it may continue through multiple title changes of the serial publication.

LC — Library of Congress.

LCCN — Library of Congress Control Number. A system control number used by the Library of Congress (LC) to identify its own cataloging records. This number is found in the 010 field of a MARC record.  It is also utilized by CONSER serial records. LCCNs should be unique to a title, though not always to a single record.

LCSH — Library of Congress Subject Heading online or print thesaurus of headings. This also includes all subject headings that may be created by combining headings and subdivisions to create new headings that do not appear as a single heading in LCSH.

MARC record — Machine Readable Cataloging record. For purposes of this document, MARCis the MARC21 format maintained by the Library of Congress.

MeSH — Medical Subject Heading thesaurus maintained by the National Library of Medicine.

Minimal-level cataloging – See Encoding level.

Monograph – A publication in one volume or a finite number of parts that contains a single work.

Monographic Series — A group of separate items related to one another by the fact that each item bears, in addition to its own title proper, a collective title applying to the group as a whole. The individual items may or may not be numbered.

Non-gap break — A gap between the recorded enumeration and/or the chronology units caused by unpublished units or discontinuity in the publisher’s enumeration or chronology. See also Gap.

Original Cataloging — The process of creating a catalog record for the item in hand.  Original cataloging entails creating a bibliographic record when none exists.

Overlay — The process of replacing an existing bibliographic or authority record with a record transferred from another database or bibliographic utility.

Partial-level cataloging – See Encoding level.

Pattern record — A portion of the HOL which describes a serial title’s publishing frequency (e.g., monthly, annual) and the levels of enumeration/chronology of the issues of the title.

PCC (Program for Cooperative Cataloging) – A cooperative cataloging effort that provides bibliographic records and related information that meets the accepted standards of its member libraries around the world.  One import aspect of PCC records is that all subjects and names are verified by current SACO and NACO authority records.

Processing — The process of reviewing and editing the holding and items, and physically processing the item in hand.

Public display – The information/fields in the MARC record that displays to the public in a library’s OPAC.

Qualifiers – Elements used to compare records for the purposes of matching.  These might include such things as language of material, material type, or publication date.

RDA – Resource Description and Access, the current standard for bibliographic description. This supersedes Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., 2002 revision (AACR2).

Serial — A publication in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numeric or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely.

Subfield code — Code that precedes data elements within a MARC field that requires separate manipulation. A subfield code consists of a delimiter and a lower case alphabetic or numeric character. Subfield codes are defined independently for each field. The order of the subfields is determined by the field in which they are assigned.

Successive entry cataloging — Cataloging of serial titles in chronological order of title or main entry changes. The rules for creating a new record for a serial each time the entry changes are found in AACR2 21.2C1 and 23.3B1. Fields on serial records provide linking references to each change. The fixed field element S/L is 0 to indicate that the record is successive entry cataloging.

Summary holdings record — Details holdings of a serial title for each institutional location.

Supplement — An item that is related to, but usually issued separately from, a published title. The supplement brings up-to-date or otherwise continues the original by containing a special feature not included in the original. The supplement has a formal relationship with the original as expressed by common authorship, a common title or subtitle, and/or a stated intention to continue or supplement the original.

Tag – Sometimes used as an alternative term for Field.

Title proper — The chief name of an item.

Uniform title — A title that is used for cataloging purposes to bring together the same works published with variant titles unless it is a serial, in which case it differentiates between identical titles.

Union records – Catalog records that are shared among multiple libraries that share the same catalog/bibliographic database.

Volume — A major division of a work distinguished from other major divisions of the same work by having its own inclusive title page, half title, cover title, or portfolio title, and usually independent pagination, foliation, or signatures. This major bibliographic unit may include various title pages and/or pagination.  Generally called other things (libre, tomo, Band, etc…) in non-English languages.

Volume title page — A page that contains the title and designation for an entire volume of a serial, rather than the designation for a specific issue. Volume title pages are often issued separately once the volume is complete.


AACR2 - Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules

ADM - Administrative Records

ALEPH - an online library catalog that lists all of the items in FLARE

ALF - Auxiliary Library Facility

ASERL - Association of Southeastern Research Libraries

BIB - Bibliographical record

CONSER - Cooperative Online Serials Program of the PCC

FLARE - Florida Academic Repository

FLVC - Florida Virtual Campus

FRBR - Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

FU - University of Florida

HDF - High Density Facility

HOL - Holding

ILF - Interim Library Facility

ISSN - International Standard Serial Number

LC - Library of Congress

MARC - Machine-Readable Cataloging, the standards set of digital formats for the description of items catalogued by libraries.

NISO -National Information Standards Organization

OCLC - Online Computer Library Center, a worldwide library cooperative

RDA - Resource Description and Access


Library of Congress MARC Standards

University of Florida Library Catalog

American Library Association

Search Florida Libraries Union Catalog (Mango)

OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards

Patterns and Captions for 853 Field

University of Florida Home Page

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