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ENC 3246: Professional Communication for Engineers


These resources are designed to help you with your Annotated Bibliographies assignment.

What are Annotations?

Annotations critique the work and compare it to other works in the bibliography. An annnotation may vary in each bibliography where it appears, since the relevance of each work may change for each project.

What constitutes an annotated bibliography?

  • An organized list of citations to sources
  • For each source, a brief description of its:
    • accuracy or authority
    • relevance
    • quality and impact

Consider including the following elements in the annotation:

  • Author qualifications and any biases
  • Intended audience of the work
  • Brief description of results or conclusions
  • Special features, such as illustrations or data, that help the reader understand the work
  • Recency or time covered by the work
  • Impact of the work on the discipline
  • Relevance of the item to the bibliography
  • Comparison with other items in the bibliography

Note: Their suitability will depend on your discipline and the audience of your bibliography

Manage Your References & Create Bibliographies

These programs will save you hours--literally!--of time. Citation management software can store all your articles and reformat them to meet the requirements of just about any journal. Just remember to proofread your works cited (or bibliography or references) page in case a citation wasn't formed properly in a database.

Find out more on our Citation Management guide.

How do I determine if a resource is credible?

Answer the questions in the CARS checklist:

CREDIBILITY – How do you know the information and author are authentic and reliable?

• Who is the general/target audience?
• Who is the publisher?
• What are the author’s credentials?
• Is the author/writer an authority/expertise on the subject?
• Is the author/writer’s contact information provided with affiliation?

ACCURACY - How do you know the information is up-to-date, factual, detailed, and comprehensive?

• What is the date of publication or copyright?
• Is the material peer-reviewed?
• Is the purpose of research and conclusion clearly stated?
• What kind of resources are cited, can you find the cited sources easily?
• Is the information relevant to your research needs?

RELEVANCE – How do you know the information is fair, objective, and consistent?

• Is the purpose, intent of research and conclusion clearly stated?
• Is the information provided balanced and the arguments supported by the facts?

SUPPORT – How reliable, accurate, reasonable and well-supported are the sources for your resource?

• How many sources support the resource? Can you find them easily?
• Pick one source and evaluate it with the CARS list. How credible, accurate, reasonable, and well-supported does it seem?

What about online resources?

• What is the purpose of the site? Is it clearly stated?
• When the site was last updated?
• Who is the intended audience of the site?
• Are links provided to more information?
• What percentage of the links still work?

Not Sure If It's Credible? Check Out These Resources!

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