US Patent 6908489 for an articulated artificial finger assembly.
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1) Utility patents may be granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof;
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3) Plant patents may be granted to anyone who invents or discovers and asexually reproduces any distinct and new variety of plant.
(from USPTO website)
... and patents include definitions of terms used. Remember, though, that patents are written by attorneys and not by engineers!
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Recognized Concensus Standards Database
Locate the various standards associated with medical devices.
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* 2007 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II - Materials online via Knovel.