Who created the resource? Are the author, organization, affiliations, and publisher clearly shown? If the page is web-based does it link to information about the organization? Do the author have credentials or expertise in the subject matter? Is the resource from a government agency, university, company, non-profit organization?
Is the information contained in the source properly cited? Is there a bibliography or reference list? Can you verify the information in other sources? Is the information free of grammatical, spelling, and typographical errors? Are the statistical data clearly explained? Are charts and graphs properly represented and cited?
Is the resource free of advertising, or is any advertising clearly separated from the content? Is there any bias? Is the sponsoring organization biased or motivated to report facts from a particular perspective?
When was the information gathered? When was the resource created? When was it updated/ revised? Is it kept current? Is currency critical to your topic?
Is the information complete? Does it cover the subject in depth? Does it match your information needs?
These criteria were adapted from a worksheet used by the Widener Science Library.
For an article to be published in an academic journal, it must be examined by experts in the field. They determine whether the information is reliable, well researched, and of interest to others who study that subject. For a more detailed explanation, check out the Finding Articles Tutorial.
Q. Which journals have peer-reviewed articles?
A. To find out if a journal is peer reviewed (also known as refereed), you can use the Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory. Search by journal title, ISSN, etc. and look for the tiny referee shirt as an indicator.
Q. How do I know if an article is peer-reviewed?
A. Not every article in a peer-reviewed journal is a peer-reviewed article. Some scholarly journals also publish letters, conference notes, news items, etc. Look at the full text of the article you're interested in. A peer-reviewed article will show a string of dates, usually either near the abstract or at the bottom of the 1st page of the PDF version or at the end of the article, to indicate that the article was reviewed and usually revised.
Example: Manuscript received November 9, 2007; revised March 5, 2008. Published September 4, 2008.
Before citing personal interviews, consider whether the person is an authority on your topic. Does the interview have the expertise in the subject matter? If yes, you should collect as much information as possible about the interview, including:
Because unpublished interviews are untraceable, it is best to avoid these whenever possible.