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English Language Institute: Publication Types

A guide for English Language Institute library services.


International Journal of Osteoarchaeology

Scholarly Publication


Popular Publication


Trade Publication

Publication Types

Popular Publications:

  • Written by journalists, staff writers, freelance writers
    • often no or one author
  • Written for general audience to entertain and inform
    • unfamiliar tems explained
  • Writing style is informal
  • Sources may be mentioned, but unlikely to be formally cited
  • No formal sections or abstracts
  • Images are large and colorful
  • Not peer reviewed

Scholarly Publications:

  • Written by and for professors and researchers (scholars) in a field
    • often there are several authors
  • Use specialized language
  • Sources of information are cited in a formal style
    • may contain
      • endnotes,
      • footnotes,
      • and/or bibliography
  • Usually contains abstract, conclusion, bibliography
  • Images are charts, graphs and tables
  • Are peer reviewed

Trade Publications:

  • Written by specialists in a field
    •  often no or one author
  • Written for people in a field
  • Provides practical information or news
  • Use specialized language
  • Sources may be mentioned, but unlikely to be formally cited
  • Unlikely to have formal sections
  • Images illustrate concepts
  • Not peer reviewed
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