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African Studies: Digital Collections

A guide to UF Libraries' research and teaching resources in African Studies. Feel free to let us know what would be useful to have included.

Digital collections

Note: links are to current UF Digital Collections platform. All resources are also available at the legacy African Studies site.

SASC collections digitized from African Studies manuscripts

African Studies digital collections may represent parts of (or entire) manuscript papers collections, with others representing selected items from Rare Books or other collections. For manuscripts, researchers should refer to our Finding Aids and Inventories database online for additional context, while book titles are in the Library Catalog. In a few rare cases (Derscheid is unique here but work is underway on another), the original papers are not in our physical collection, but were reproduced with permission from their owners for public access exclusively in digital form.

Related collections

Berner photo and scrapbook album

Berner Photographs and scrapbook

Entomologist and professor Lewis Berner received three degrees from the University of Florida. He was inducted into the army soon after receiving his doctorate in 1941 and left campus to train in artillery. The following year, he was assigned to Ft. McPherson Medical Laboratory and transferred to Accra, Ghana (then the Gold Coast), where he worked to control mosquitoes with the Inter-Allied Malaria Control Group during the Second World War. He received the Legion of Merit for his work with this primarily British and American group, staffed principally by engineers.

Berner was medical inspector of Morrison Field Air Base (Palm Beach) for the Africa-Middle East Wing of the Air Transport Command, and for the North African Wing of the A.T.C. He traveled to Liberia, Senegal, French Morocco, Tunisia, Nigeria, and the Union of South Africa in this capacity in 1943 and 1944. He traveled from Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Elizabethville, colonial Belgian Congo) to Johannesburg, South Africa on a rail trip that took five days. Returning to the US in 1945, Berner was stationed in Miami, but two months later was transferred to the Philippines. He stopped in Hawaii on VJ Day, 1945. He continued to his post as Commanding Officer of the School of Preventative Medicine in Manila, but because the war ended the school never functioned. After his discharge in 1946 he was appointed Assistant Professor in the Biology Department at UF. In 1950, he contracted to work on the Volta River project in Ghana (then colonial Gold Coast), investigating schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis, again with the Inter-Allied group. He also worked in the Shire Valley of Malawi in 1952, with Archie Carr as his assistant. He was named Professor Emeritus in 1984, and was a recognized expert on the mayflies of the Southeast U.S. Professor Berner died in 2004.

See Guide to the Lewis Berner Papers for more information on materials available on site.

Campbell African wildlife

Bob Campbell's wildlife & conservation photographs

Primary access to about 2,500 digital reproductions selected from the Bob Campbell Papers are online here, relating to Fossey and the Karisoke Research Center. Except for the small number of photos for which Campbell did not claim copyrights, all are available as open access under Creative Commons By NC ND license. Please contact SASC duplication services staff to request high resolution versions for publication under these terms, or to inquire about commercial use.

Examples of images and other online resources relating to Dian Fossey's early research with the mountain gorillas at the Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda include:

Also included online are examples of Campbell's documentation of Richard Leakey's Hominin fossil excavations at various sites, images of Leakey's campaign against the illegal ivory trade as head of Kenya's Wildlife Conservation and Management Department (later, the Kenya Wildlife Service). Also digitized are about 30 video and audio recordings, mostly in unedited or incomplete states. Among these are an audio book edition of Campbell's Taming of the Gorillas.

Note that related wildlife conservation materials are available now in the African Studies Collections: see East African Professional Hunters Association (EAPHA) and the Ian Parker Collection (from which are digitized over 3,000 elephant biological data sheet records, along with reports on the international ivory trade and related materials). Note, too, that UF theses and dissertations on African wildlife conservation can be searched via the Institutional Repository.

On site at Smathers Libraries Special and Area Studies Collections, the physical manuscript Bob Campbell Papers include over 15,000 professional photographic slide transparencies of primarily East African wildlife species and his documentation (1968-1972) of Dian Fossey's field research with mountain gorillas that cemented her international public recognition prior to her book, Gorillas in the Mist, and the movie based on it.

See Guide to the Bob Campbell Papers for more information on materials available on site.

Carter autobiography and interview transcripts

Gwendolen Carter papers on Southern Africa

The Carter Collection encompasses the research and personal files of Professor Gwendolen M. Carter, dating primarily from 1970 to 1987. Some materials from the 1930s, 1960s, and 1990s are included. The papers are predominantly related to her research on the political and economic dynamics of southern Africa, particularly South Africa, during the 1970s and 1980s.

Gwendolen Margaret Carter was born in Hamilton, Ontario in 1906. The daughter of a physician, she completed a B.A. in history at the University of Toronto in 1929. She received a second B.A. from Oxford in 1931 and returned to Hamilton, Ontario to teach at McMaster University until 1935.

Carter came to the United States to undertake graduate study at Radcliffe College, where she completed both her M.A. (1936) and Ph.D. (1938) in political science. Naturalized as a US citizen in 1948, she taught political science at Smith College from 1943 to 1964, holding the Sophia Smith chair there from 1961. She was then at Northwestern University from 1964-1974 as Melville J. Herskovits Professor of African Affairs. She taught at Indiana University 1974-1984 and was on faculty at the University of Florida from 1984 until her retirement in 1987.

While Carter's early work focused on European governance, her scholarly attention shifted to Africa following an initial trip to South Africa in 1948. From then on, she specialized in the politics and economy of southern Africa over the course of a career that spanned more than forty years. Carter's many research trips to South Africa culminated in numerous publications, several of which have become classic texts in both political science and African studies. These canonical works, which detail the dynamics of political change in Africa, include: The Politics of Inequality: South Africa Since 1948 (1958); Independence for Africa (1960); South Africa's Transkei: The Politics of Domestic Colonialism (1967); and Which Way is South Africa Going? (1980). She edited several works about Africa, including the four-volume From Protest to Challenge: A Documentary History of African Politics in South Africa 1882-1964 (1972-1977) with Thomas Karis.

Professor Carter was one of the founders of African Studies in the US and was amongst the most widely known scholars of African affairs in the twentieth century. She was 84 years old when she died at her home in Orange City, Florida on February 20, 1991

See Guide to the Gwendolen M. Carter Collection for more information on materials available on site.

Cohen papers

The Ronald Cohen papers on Borno, Nigeria

Primarily from Professor Cohen's research in Nigeria on the ethnography and social structures of Kanuri and Bura-Pabir speaking peoples living in Borno (Bornu), the bulk of this collection consists of field notes, oral histories, grant proposals, and interviews created while conducting field research from the 1950s-1980s. A majority of the oral history interviews were conducted by individuals belonging to the same clans and families as their interview informants. These, along with observations about the informants and villages, were recorded in field notebooks, many of which include drawings of tools and ceremonial objects, hand-drawn maps of villages, and sketches of houses and other structures. Several were transcribed in typescript. Other files in the collection include photographs, notes, and research materials created or collected by Cohen while in Nigeria.

See Guide to the Ronald Cohen Papers for more information on materials available on site.

Dakar photographs, 1939

Dakar, Senegal photographs taken in 1939

Photos of Dakar show residential areas, architecture, commerce, residents, street scenes, and views of the city. They have handwritten captions, but it is not evident who wrote them. Descriptions include: "Modern French Development", "Race Course", "French Residency", "Catholic Cathedral", "Station", "Native Village Outside Dakar", "On the Quay", "Native Diving Boys", "Kraal Huts", "Police Parading", "Native Quarters", and "Post Office."

See Guide to the Collection of Photographs of Dakar in 1939 for more information on materials available on site.

Derscheid Rwanda history

J. M. Derscheid historical research notes on Rwanda and eastern DRC

Jean-Marie Derscheid was a Belgian zoologist and wildlife conservationist who undertook historical research on Rwanda and the Eastern Congo from 1924-1939. The collection includes about 2,500 manuscript pages relating to the former Ruanda-Urundi (Rwanda), along with some documents on the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu, and the former Oriental (now Ituri, Haut-Uele, Tshopo, and Bas-Uele) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (then Belgian Congo). The author's interest was the area's history before 20th c. Materials are chiefly administrative reports of District Commissioners and Governors (e.g. Bourgeois, R. 1934. "Notes sur l’Administration des indigenes du Territoire de Shangugu (Ruanda)" Typescript. 83 pages). These include oral histories, genealogies of clan chiefs from ca. 1859-1940, censuses, notes, correspondence and reports by missionaries (members of the Roman Catholic missionary society known as the White Fathers or Pères Blancs). Materials are in French, German, and Flemish. UF does not hold original manuscripts for this online-only collection (reproduced from microfilm with the owner's permission). Derscheid's scholar-curated collection of research materials is an important resource for interdisciplinary research in the area as noted by René Lemarchand, professor emeritus of political science (see Rwanda and Burundi 1970:x). The online indexes and guides to the collection are available below.

Among other things, Derscheid is notable for criticizing Belgian colonial agricultural policies promoting cultivation in sensitive environments of the Virunga Mountains, which he recognized for their importance in conservation, as these supported one of the only two limited habitats of endangered mountain gorillas. A single day's journal entry from his experience on Carl Akeley's final expedition to Mt. Mikeno is included from February 28, 1927 (though nothing from the rest of his journal was available for digitization).

Derscheid published on African history and culture, the creation of the Parc National Albert in Congo (including his work on the Mountain Gorillas with Carl Akeley's expedition), many biological science articles, a book on European bird conservation, and articles on the captive breeding of wild ducks. He was also a member of the Belgian resistance during World War II who was captured and later executed by the Nazis.

Additional materials available in support of the manuscripts themselves include:

NB: There is no finding aid for these materials in Archives Space because they were digitized from microfilm.

East African Professional Hunters Association records

East African Professional Hunters Association

The manuscript EAPHA official records include minutes, membership records, rules, reports, as well as correspondence, collected press clippings, records of trophies awarded, member biographical sketches, photographs, etc. Digitized materials are primarily personal diaries and photograph albums of members.

The records primarily span from 1934-1977, but some materials date through 1999. The collection includes personal and professional correspondence among its members, the press, a number of hunters and safari tour organizations, as well as press clippings (both positive and negative in tone) about the organization and various hunting methods and practices. Materials cover the organization from inception to its dissolution, and contain official records, rules and regulations, as well as ethical and disciplinary issues that arose throughout its existence. The papers include official meeting minutes, membership books, member biographies, applications, suspensions, hunting records, trophies and awards.

Although the collection is organized into several records series (Membership Files, Correspondence, Meeting Minutes, Press Clippings, Photographs, etc.), many of the materials found in these series also may be found interspersed throughout the collection. For example, membership issues and correspondence overlap in various boxes. Some correspondence signatures are missing, having been removed prior to transfer. Brief mention and substantial discussions of poaching-related issues and diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African trypanosomiasis) can be found throughout the collection. An item of particular interest is the "Simba Book" (an album bound in lion skin with photographs of famous hunters of the early 20th century), donated to the association at its inception by Captain Archie Ritchie, the most famous of Kenya's Colonial Chief Game Wardens.

See the Guide to the Records of the East African Professional Hunters' Association for more information and original materials available on site.

Ethiopian Royalty and Clergy images

Post cards of Ethiopian royalty and clergy

A small collection of 23 post cards depicts members of the royalty and clergy in Ethiopia (formerly known as Abyssinia). These include captions written in French and Amharic. They are primarily photographic studio portraits with some reproductions of painted portraits of emperors, kings, governors, military leaders, etc. The names of individuals, as written in French on the cards, are: Abouna Petros, Fitawrari Habte Guiorguis [Giorgis], Negus Wolde Guiorguis [Giorgis], Negus Mikael, Menelik II Empereur d'Ethiopie, S.A. Ras Makonnen, S.M. Negus Teferi Mekonnen [Haile Selassie I], S.M. Imperatrice Zaouditou, Itegue Taitou, Ate Theodros Empereur d'Ethiopie, Ate Yohannesse Empereur d'Ethiopie, Dedjazmatche Tessenima Dargue, Dedjazmatche Machacha Worke, Sahle Sellasse Roi de Choa, Balambaras Tekla Markos, S.E. Ras Hailou, S.A. Ras Kassa, S.A. Menene, Afanougous Estifanos, Abouna Matheos, Ate Hailou Malakot, S.E. Ras Dargue, and Afanougous Telahoun. Each post card includes this imprint information on the verso: "Imp. de S. M. Negus Taffari Makonnen - Addis Abeba."

See the Guide to Post Cards of Ethiopian Royalty and Clergy for more information available on materials available on site.

Fortune Shona language

George Fortune Shona language and literature

The Fortune Collection includes language and linguistic materials collected by Professor George Fortune and held by the George A. Smathers Libraries. These are a few examples digitized from our primarily circulating and manuscript collections (see MS Group 205 finding aid). Fortune conducted extensive research and written widely on Central and Southern African languages for over fifty years. His writings concerning the Shona language were crucial to the development of a standard Shona orthography, and texts such as Elements of Shona are regarded as canonical. Fortune also played a key role in establishing African linguistics as a field of study at African universities. Later in his career, Professor Fortune became very involved in supporting the publication of Shona literature, such as praise poetry, modern poetry, and traditional stories (see Hodza and Fortune 1979, Fortune 1980). He made important contributions to the advancement and recognition of Shona literature, and worked extensively with writers, such as A.C. Hodza and J.C. Kumbirai, who published with the Southern Rhodesia African Literature Bureau.

The bulk of the George Fortune collection consists of published materials located in the circulating collections of the George A. Smathers Libraries. A bibliography of Fortune monographs also is available in the Institutional Repository.

See the Guide to the George Fortune Papers for more information on manuscript materials available on site or for monographs search for the George Fortune Collection in the Library Catalog.

Ngano audio recordings

Three audio cassette tapes (digitized for download) are held in the collection as they appear to be original field recordings of folktales collected by R. Mufuka for vol. 2 of Ngano, edited by Fortune. Each appears to be in good condition and an original audio cassette. The stories and songs are identified by numbers and titles handwritten in faded, barely legible pencil on each of the three index card inserts. Apparent matching titles for Ngano volume 2 are indicated below by corresponding page numbers from the Table of Contents in square brackets. Since the writing is difficult to read and I’m unfamiliar with Shona, I likely made transcription errors and used titles appearing in the Table of Contents as printed there.

The University of Florida Smathers Libraries holds two volumes of Ngano [edited by G. Fortune]. Salisbury, Zimbabwe: Mercury Press, 1980-1982. First published by the Department of African Languages, University of Rhodesia, 1974. In Shona. (Library West - General Collection v.1 GR358.62.M3 N47 1980; v.2 GR358.62.M3 N47 1980). From the 1974 Forward to Ngano by George Fortune: "The folktales in Ngano, vol. 2 were transcribed in the field by R. Mufuka, a student in Department of African Languages, University of Rhodesia during interviews with both Korekore and Zezuru people at his home in the Chesa area in the Mt. Darwin District."

Tape 1 (B1), side 1
1. Njiva nchanga nemu
2. Kamba na Tsuro
3. [1] Mukadzi nemurume
4. Murume waiuraya vana
5. Mambo nemwana
6. [5] Shungu dzinokunda ronda

Tape 1, side 2
Shunzudzi moku ndaranda

Tape 2 (B2), side 1
Shungu dzinokunda ronda (con’t?)
1. [24] Ushamwari hwaTsuro naBveni, Njiva naKarukodzi
2. [26] Zvirehwi nengwena
3. [29] Chishiri chainzi chinyamungune
4. [33] Chirombe naHauzizi
5. [36] Mungaiti Kudii

Tape 2, side 2
1. [37] Kamutarari
2. Rungano rwe musikana nengwenu
3. [43] Chinyamapezi
4. [46] Vakomana vaisanduka kuita shumba

Tape 3 (B3), side 1
Vakomana Vaisanduka shumpa (con’t?)
1. [53] Mukadzin’ina akaba hamba
2. [55] Shiri yaimutsa miti
3. [57] Vasikana vakaroorwa nemadzvinyu
4. [59] Musikana wevhu
5. [61] Vasikana vaviri
6. [65] Mukuwasha aive nenungo

Tape 3, side 2
Mukuwasha awe nenu nong (con’t?)
1. [68] Bere nemudzimai
2. [70] Amai nedzvinyu
3. [72] Mukuwasha naatezvara
4. [74] Murume waivhima
5. [76] Vakadzinyina
6. Zivume

Ngano vol. 2 lists a total of 21 titles on the Contents page, while 28 items are numbered on the three audio cassette indexes.

George Fortune’s 1975 forward to Ngano vol. 1 indicates a plan for publishing 3 total volumes (“Two further volumes of Ngano are in preparation…and are accompanied by the original tape recordings”), though I only see bibliographic records for volumes 1 & 2 and do not see evidence that vol. 2 was published or distributed with accompanying audio tapes. [I also have found no evidence of written drafts for the proposed vol. 3 of Ngano]. It also notes that the stories in vol. 1 were written tales representing well-known oral stories but not actually transcribed, while the stories in vol. 2 were collected orally and transcribed.

The collection also includes five audio recordings (four Philips C-90 cassettes and one C-60), which are labeled as follows (these are more legible and in a clearer hand):

Tape 1, side 1
1. Mhambwe nashumba mapfumo
2. Tsuro naNzau
3. Tsuro naGudo
4. Rungano rwemwana (“not”)
5. Maminimini
6. Tsuro Nabveni (munda wenyimo)
7. Huku dzetsvuura
8. _____
9. Murume amya kamba
10. Mukfozi akange asina vana (“con’t on B”)

Tape 1, side 2
1. (“con’t from 1”)
2. Gore renzara
3. Tsudo masudo (“no”)
4. Matumai
5. Mukodzi aisadya mbizi
6. Bofu naShumba
7. Vakomana Vaifudza mbudzi
8. Musoro svadingwa
9. _____

Tape 2, side 1
1. Mukadzi ainge asinsadyi nvama yemombe
2. Nhunsira madende
3. Majaira kudya zivekukwata (“song”)
4. Chinhimba
5. Paringa
6. Bveni tsuro nemhuka
7. Vakomana shumba
8. (“no”)
9. Tsuro nabveni
10. Kachembere (“obedience”)
11. Mukoma ada kuuvaya munin’ina wake

Tape 2, side 2
1. Dhumbu nemanyere
2. Gore renzara
3. Mwana ainge asina amai
4. Hombihororo (“song”)
5. Murume aita nyaka
6. Buire nachikwati
7. Ambuya bere
8. Musikana neshato

Tape 3, side 1
1. Sawara narwavhi
2. Nematariro
3. Garavaza
4. Tsuro nakamba (“con’t B”)

Tape 3, side 2
1. Tsuro nakamba (“con’t”)
2. Tsuro nakamba
3. Mukadzi ainge asina mwana
4. Madzinga chemhezi
5. Riro-riro mukaringa
6. Muto wembizi

Tape 4, side 1
1. Murume shumba
2. Bveni natsuro
3. Nherera
4. Kuvaka mukosi
5. Mazai enyoka
6. Musikana aisadya nyama yemombe
7. Gore renzara

Tape 4, side 2
1. Gore renzara (“con’t”)
2. Tsuro nabveni
3. Chamapezi
4. Tsuro nabveni
5. China-mapezi
6. Vasikana vaitihwina

Tape 5, side 1
1. Gungno nakamba
2. Tsuro nashumba
3. Kuudza mwana—hupedzisira
4. Chitsiga nehombiro yegndo

Tape 5, side 2 (blank: no titles on index)

–DR (2007)

International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events (ITERATE) database

To access the data files, login (if not already) to UF IT services (e.g. GatorCloud, Office 365, or GatorMail). Links to the data files for 2000-2022 are:

  1. ITERATECOMMONFILE(Y)2000-2018.xls

Files download to your local device.

The current data codebook is also available via this link: Edward F. Mickolus, Todd Sandler, Jean M. Murdock, and Peter A. Flemming. 2023. International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events. Iterate 1968-2023 Data Codebook. Ponte Vedra, Florida: International Terrorism Data Center; Vinyard Software.

Terms of use: These data were requested for use in the course GEO4024 /AFS 4935 Terrorism and Space by Prof. Olivier Walther, Department of Geography. The datasets linked here are intended for University of Florida authenticated users as course materials and for scholarly research. They are licensed by the George A. Smathers Libraries for local hosting and should not be shared with unaffiliated users or to public websites. All data, here in spreadsheets for the years 2000-2022, remain the property of Vinyard Software, Inc. 502 Wandering Woods Way, Ponte Vedra, Florida 32081-0621. They are distributed via UF’s Sharepoint site with access restricted to authenticated users for the exclusive use of current University of Florida faculty, students, and staff under license by the owner.

Licensing: “Purchasers of ITERATE and DOTS are welcome to share these products with any member of their institution—faculty, administration, students, research associates in the case of universities, and employees in the case of government ministries and research organizations. We ask that you do not post any of our materials on your website such that it becomes available to non-members of your institution or make copies that circulate outside of your institution. If you have any questions, please ask us.”

Manis scrapbooks from Liberia, 1940s

W.E. Manis photographs and scrapbooks from Liberia, 1939-1941

Two scrapbook albums from November 1939-1941 begin chronologically with correspondence on his job offer from Firestone Plantations Co., followed by personal letters, company manuals, and photographs. A transcribed letter written to his mother after arriving in Monrovia is included. Ephemera, mementos and scrapbook items include a small number of notes or letters from Liberian laborers under his supervision, offering a glimpse of the personal relationships established in the context of this global horticultural and industrial enterprise. Subjects include scenes on the freighter, arrival in Monrovia, his work and recreational activities while working, and his departure in November 1941. The majority of the photographs are of Liberian men, women and children at work or posing for the camera. Manis himself appears in a few of the photos.

See the Guide to the W.E. Manis Collection for more information on materials available on site.

Mfumu'Eto comics from DR Congo

The Papa Mfumu'Eto 1er Papers

These original, popular comic book manuscripts and production papers are from 1990s-2000s Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Central Africa. They offer humorous, satirical, political, and moral perspectives on everyday life in Kinshasa (capital of the DRC). The texts (most in Lingala) and images offer a rich source for investigations of its urban culture and social issues such as war, history, poverty, entertainment, disease, emigration, religion, class, rumor, and domestic life in former Zaïre and post-Mobutu DRC.

Included are story ideas and notes, character and creative concept sketches, drafts in pencil and pen-and-ink, and production materials by the popular Congolese “street” comic creator and artist Jaspe-Saphir Nkou-Ntoula, best known as Papa Mfumu’Eto 1er. He claims to have produced the best-selling comic books ever in Congo, most between 1990 and 2005.

The digitized Papa Mfumu'Eto 1er Papers offer physical evidence of the production of handmade, ink-on-paper comic books (Bandes Dessinées or BDs) in urban Africa during the nineteen-nineties and early twenty-first century. Many sheets are attached as printer’s or reader’s pairs and printer’s spreads. Included are a few complete impositions. Many examples of story ideas, layout designs, planning and production notes, and personal or business promotion materials are included, along with press check or proof pages, and 20 complete printed comic booklets.

This digitized collection includes images of all aspects of the manuscripts, openly accessible to researchers on-site in Smathers Library, Special and Area Studies Collections.

Further information is available in Graduate Assistant Aurelie Maketa’s characters and stories spreadsheet.

See Guide to the Papa Mfumu'Eto 1er Papers for more information on materials available on site.

Ndiamande photographs from South Africa

Richard Ndimande's photographs from the portrait studio of Z.J.S. Ndimande and Son, Greytown, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

J.S.Z. Ndimande started a photograph business in 1940 at Greytown. He used a large box-type camera with a black cloth. The film was processed inside the camera in compartments with developer and fixative. Richard worked with his father from 1959-1968, when he took over the business. Soon after, his studio had to leave town due to enforcement of the Group Areas Act. Richard moved the studio to a semi-rural township outside of Greytown, but business was poor. In about 1983 the business moved back to town to the corner of Okes and Vortrekker Streets, under a cover name of Frederick (Bob) Harris. At that time, Richard switched from using black and white to color film.

In the early period, Richard Ndimande says, they used a Ciroflex camera, they then switched to a Rollei (6x6cm 120/620 film) with dual lens which they used until 1973, after which he used 35mm black and white. Since 1983 the studio had a shallow stage with a row of footlights and a row of overhead lights using 100W or 150W tungsten bulbs to give a bright evenly distributed frontal light. No flash was used. Color daylight film was used. The compensation for color balance was worked out by trial and error with the processing firm.

The collector, Dr. Frank Jolles, is an Honorary Research Associate at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and Honorary Research Associate of the Natal Museum. His 2006 article "Negotiating relationships: Village to city, beadwork to SMS" discusses the context of this studio and its clientele, including a number of images similar to those in this collection. The 2 1/4" x 2 1/4" black and white negatives all date from before 1973, there are no 35mm black and white negatives, only color. Dr. Jolles has an extensive collection of Ndimande's black and white and color prints.

See the Guide to Richard Ndimande's Studio Photographs for more information on materials available on site

Onitsha Market Literature

Onitsha Market Literature

Onitsha, Nigeria was once home to the largest outdoor market in West Africa. From the late 1940s through the destruction of the market building and its renowned bookstalls during the Biafran War, its many Igbo consumers newly literate in English represented a vital reading public. This modest digital collection offers a few examples of the small books and pamphlets that were written, published and sold in and around this famously active marketplace. Scholarly interest in Onitsha Market Literature has been longstanding and broad. While the themes and subjects may be simplistic or amusing, they represent cultural attitudes and interests of a youthful (evidently mostly male) readership in mid-twentieth century Nigeria. The use of letterpresses and type sold second-hand by missions and government offices allows tracking their use through forensic clues in the type itself. The market offers a fascinating launching point for perspectives surrounding these unassuming publications that in many ways resemble earlier British and American pulp fiction, popular genres such as chapbooks, or dime novels.


Further reading

Collins, Harold Reeves. 1968. The new English of the Onitsha chapbooks. Athens: Ohio University, Center for International Studies. LIBRARY WEST General Collection -- DT1.P33 no.1

Dodson, Don. 1973. “The role of the publisher in Onitsha Market Literature.” Research in African Literatures 4(2):172-188. Available online: [Accessed Aug. 18, 2011].

Hogg, Peter C. and Ilse Sternberg. 1990. Market literature from Nigeria: a checklist. London: British Library. LIBRARY WEST: Reference -- PR9387.4.M371 1990

McCarthy, Cavan. 1984. “Printing in Onitsha: Some personal observations on the production of Onitsha Market Literature.” African Research and Documentation 35: 22-25. Available online: [Accessed Aug. 17, 2011; Online version includes scanned sample images].

Obiechina, Emmanuel N. 1973. An African popular literature: a study of Onitsha market pamphlets. Cambridge [Eng.]: University Press. LIBRARY WEST General Collection -- PR9387.85.O5O3

Owomoyela, Oyekan. 2008. The Columbia guide to West African literature in English since 1945. New York: Columbia University Press. LIBRARY WEST: Reference  -- PR9340.5.O96 2008

Thometz, Kurt. 2001. Life turns man up and down: high life, useful advice, and mad English: African market literature. New York: Pantheon Books. LIBRARY WEST General Collection -- PR9387.5.L54 2001

Other collections available (online, on microfilm)

Onitsha Market Literature: From the bookstalls of a Nigerian market. Lawrence: University of Kansas Libraries. Available online:[Accessed Aug. 17, 2011].

Onitsha market literature]. 1967. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Library, Photocopying Section. [“Collection of 78 indigenously published English language pamphlets from Nigeria of the ‘Onitsha market literature’ genre containing stories, plays, advice, moral discourses, and other forms of popular literature; pamphlets originally printed approx. 1948-1963.”]. LIBRARY WEST Microfilm -- PR9387.85.O5O55 1967

Onitsha market literature]. London: British Library, 1992. Microfilm: 12 reels (8,501 fr.); 35 mm. LIBRARY WEST Microfilm -- ZN00179


The Onitsha Market Literature collection consists of published materials located in the rare books collections of the George A. Smathers Libraries.

Parker East African wildlife conservation

Ian Parker East African wildlife conservation

Original Elephant data sheets from official herd culling and morphology data collection at Murchison Falls National Park and Budongo Forest, (Uganda), Tsavo (Kenya), and Mkomasi (Tanzania) from 1965-1969. Contextual information and a compilation of the resulting research publications is available in the unpublished manuscript, "A compendium of scientific data from 3,169 elephant culled in Uganda (1965-1967), Kenya (1966) and Northern Tanzania (1968 & 1969)." The author's updated spreadsheet is also available for download. The Ivory Trade an extensive collection of reports and research on the commercial trade in ivory and its poaching in East Africa from 1957-1979 including Mombasa Ivory Room Auction data. Four conservation narratives (accompanying silent films on elephant and hippo culling in the 1960s, very large elephant herds at Galana, Kenya in 1963, and on culling in Rwanda) with transcripts available.

See the Guide to the Ian Parker Collection Relating to East African Wildlife Conservation for more information on materials available on site.

Pucci photographs

Pucci photograph album: Eritrea, Ethiopia and Libya

Photographs by Italian soldier G. Pucci on a voyage to Eritrea, Ethiopia and Libya in 1939. Items are identified with captions, and the itinerary is documented: Tessenei, Amara-Addis Ababa, Addis Abeba-Lechemti, Assab-Dessie, Asmara-Gondar, Gondar-Debra Marcos-Addis Abeba, Litoranea Libica. Villages such as Gasperini, Ghedo, Bati, Sardo, Mille, Elidar, Guma, Assab, Adi Arcai and Debarech also are included. Subjects in Eritrea and Ethiopia include colonial dignitaries, Italian built roads and bridges, colonial pioneers, an inspection by Duke Aosta, the air corps camp at Dessie, fantazia by Somali irregulars, Abyssinian leaders, military pontoon bridges across the Blue Nile, Ethiopian royalty at Dabat, an Italian family with African servant and children in militzia costume, colonial construction, warehousing, agriculture, and a Portuguese castle. Pucci flew to Libya on February 21 and several other scenes at various locations are shown: Muslim school children giving a fascist salute, ruins at Leptas Magna, newly created Italian villages such as Cesare Battisti and Francesco Crispi, Zliten, a Muslim procession, the Oasis of Mazurta, ruins of Sabrata, and different monuments to the Italians. The album includes two poems written by Pucci.

See Guide to G. Pucci's Photograph Album Relating to Eritrea, Ethiopia and Libya for more information on materials available on site.

Rikli Ethiopian photographs

Martin Rikli photographs of Ethiopia (1935-'36)

A set of 4 large photo albums with about 800 original images by Swiss documentary filmmaker Dr. Martin Rikli (1898-1969), taken on a voyage to and during his stay in Ethiopia during a German diplomatic and propaganda mission in the 1930s. The collection documents defensive military preparations in Addis Ababa, the capital, prior to and during the Italian invasion of Ethiopia (also known as the Second Italo–Abyssinian War). Included are three photo albums, each entitled Abessinien 1935-1936, with a fourth album of Rikli's handwritten contextual “Notes for Photograph Collection” (Anmerkungen Zur Lichtbildsammlung). These are accompanied by Rikli’s April 4, 1936 letter describing the situation in the capital, as well as a few miscellaneous items. The collection is particularly useful for research on mid-Twentieth Century Ethiopia, Ethiopian institutions such as the Coptic church, palace events and daily activities in the royal court, the European presence in Addis Ababa, military and diplomatic history, documentary photography, and visual history.

Rikli was educated in Switzerland and Germany, completing a dissertation in 1923 on the chemistry of photographic film. He captured images with exotic films and innovative techniques for educational purposes, contributing to the development of portable motion picture cameras, “most notably in the construction of the lightweight Kinamo, which revolutionized documentary filmmaking” (Buckland, Michael K. 2008. “The Kinamo movie camera, Emanuel Goldberg and Joris Ivens.” Film History 20(1): 49-58 available in Project Muse). From the mid-1920s he was employed by Zeiss Ikon, making movies in his spare time. In 1927, he travelled with a group to Tanzania (former German East Africa). He documented the expedition and German settlers, gaining acclaim for his nationalistic patriotism. Over the next 15 years he created dozens of films working for the Ufa (UniversumFilmAktiengesellschaft) movie studio in the cultural film department (many were distributed in US cinemas). In 1929, he traveled to North Africa to film a documentary on Italian colonization in Tunisia, Libya and Tripoli.

Rikli wrote several books based on his work and travel, promoting German political interests as a war correspondent, and as a Nazi documentary filmmaker. His work focused on the successes of the German and Italian fascist states, supported the Japanese invasion of China and promoted German advancements in technology and science. He was widely recognized as a leading propaganda correspondent and remained a supporter of the Nazi party throughout World War II. In 1944, he anticipated the German defeat and returned to Switzerland, where he continued to create films especially for instructional purposes. He won a prize for his short film “Houles Célestes” at the 1949 Venice Film Festival. He died in Zurich on April 7, 1969.

  1. Abessinien 1935-1936, volume 1
  2. Abessinien 1935-1936, volume 2
  3. Abessinien 1935-1936, volume 3
  4. Anmerkungen Zur Lichtbildsammlung (Notes for Photograph Collection)

For further research (related materials):

Related manuscripts/archival materials:

Related materials available elsewhere include:

Works in this collection are intended to be used along with the literature, maps, art, and historical documents held in Africa Studies collections

See Guide to the Martin Rikli Photographs for more information on materials available on site.

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